Matt. 6:1]) begins to be utilized idiomatically as “charity” (e.g., Tob. 4:7, 14:2).
I hope at a later point to give more full attention to what may be considered Jesus’ three pillars (or principles) of spirituality that are outlined in Matthew 6:1-18. At this juncture it is sufficient to state what they are: acts of loving-kindness (Matt. 6:1-4), prayer (Matt. 6:5-6), and repentance/fasting (Matt. 6:16-18)…. Should we assume that Jesus’ ordering of his own spiritual pillars in Matthew 6 likewise indicates a prioritization?
Despite the continuing debate between Matthean and Markan priorists, some form of the widely-accepted Two-Source Hypothesis seems necessary for a proper understanding of the synoptic relationships. The Two-Source Hypothesis as generally conceived, however, cannot cover the evidence of dependence and interdependence found in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke.
Matt. 7:9-11; Luke 11:11-13
(Huck 38, 148; Aland 70, 187; Crook 53, 212)For abbreviations and bibliographical references, see “Introduction to ‘The Life of Yeshua: A Suggested Reconstruction.'”… although the author of Matthew omitted Friend in Need’s illustration, he preserved Friend in Need’s application (Matt. 7:7-8 // Luke 11:9-10) and immediately afterward copied Fathers Give Good Gifts (Matt. 7:9-11 // Luke 11:11-13).
The prayer recorded in Matt. 6:9-13 // Luke 11:2-4 has been called “the Lord’s Prayer” at least since the time of Origen (late second to mid-third century C.E), who referred to τοῦ κυρίου προσευχή (“prayer of the Lord”; De oratione 18:1 [ed. … This block of material is what remained of the original “How to Pray” complex after the Anthologizer had removed the Praying Like Gentiles pericope (Matt. 6:7-8) and Yeshua’s Discourse on Worry (Matt. 6:25-34; Luke 12:22-31), and after the author of Luke had removed the Persistent Widow parable (Luke 18:1-8).
Matt. 10:2-4; Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-16; Acts 1:13 (Huck 72; Aland 49; Crook 72, 103)For abbreviations and bibliographical references, see “Introduction to ‘The Life of Yeshua: A Suggested Reconstruction.'” Revised: 18-March-2020
וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיִּקְרָא לְתַלְמִידָיו וַיִּבְחַר מֵהֶם שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה שְׁלִיחִים שִׁמְעוֹן פֶּטְרוֹס וְאַנְדְּרַיי אָחִיו וְיַעֲקֹב וְיוֹחָנָן וּפְלִיפּוֹס וּבַר תַּלְמַי וּמַתַּי וְתוֹמָה וְיַעֲקֹב בֶּן חַלְפִי וְשִׁמְעוֹן הַקַּנַּאי וִיהוּדָה בֶן יַעֲקֹב וִיהוּדָה אִישׁ קְרִיּוֹת שֶׁהָיָה מָסוֹר
One day Yeshua called his disciples together and chose twelve of them to be his emissaries to Israel. Their names were Shimon Petros and Andrai (his brother), Yaakov, Yohanan, Pelipos, Talmai’s son, Matai, Tomah, Yaakov Halfi’s son, zealous Shimon, Yehudah Yaakov’s son, and Yehudah from Keriyot, who was a traitor.This translation is a dynamic rendition of our reconstruction of the conjectured Hebrew source that stands behind the Greek of the Synoptic Gospels. It is not a translation of the Greek text of a canonical source.