The Hebraic parallelism (man/Son of Man) of the saying helps us to understand that Jesus was not speaking exclusively of himself, but as a representative of humanity (see also Matt. 8:20; 9:6-8).
A key concept in Jesus’ teaching is the Kingdom of Heaven.For abbreviations and bibliographical references, see “Introduction to ‘The Life of Yeshua: A Suggested Reconstruction.'”The Kingdom of Heaven is the subject of many of Jesus’ parables and is at the heart of his proclamation. The Kingdom of Heaven has, nevertheless, frequently been misunderstood and misconstrued by numerous scholars. The Kingdom of Heaven is neither a place we can visit nor a time for which we must wait.
This variation occurs twice in Mark (Mark 1:9; 4:4); 5 times in Matthew (Matt. 7:28; 11:1; 13:53; 19:1; 26:1); 22 times in Luke (Luke 1:8, 23, 41, 59; 2:1, 6, 15, 46; 7:11; 9:18, 28, 33, 37; 11:1, 14, 27; 17:14; 19:29; 20:1; 24:30; 24:51). 2) subjectless ἐγένετο + time phrase (as here, in Luke 9:51: “when the days were fulfilled”) + kai (and) + finite verb (as here, in Luke 9:51: “he set”). This variation occurs once in Matthew (Matt. 9:10) and 11 times in Luke (Luke 5:1, 12, 17; 8:1, 22; 9:51; 14:1; 17:11-12; 19:15; 24:4; 24:15).
This rabbinic saying has a familiar ring to readers of the New Testament because Jesus uttered a similar saying: “With the measure you measure, it will be measured to you” (Matt. 7:2; cf. … In another place, Jesus says: “Lay up treasure in heaven,” also a teaching about giving to the poor (Matt. 6:20)…. (Matt. 7:16; my trans.); Nor do they put new wine into old wineskins…But they put new wine into new wineskins” (Matt. 9:17; NKJV); “If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub….”
Here is a sampling of the many doublets and parallelisms we find in the sayings of Jesus: “The wise and understanding” (Luke 10:21); “prophets and apostles” (Luke 11:49); “kings and governors” (Luke 21:12); “two men will be in the field…two women will be grinding with a hand mill” (Matt. 24:40-41); “look at the birds of the heaven…consider the lilies of the field” (Matt. 6:26, 28); “they make their phylacteries wide…and their tassels long” (Matt. 23:5); “when you see a cloud rising in the west…when you see the south wind blowing” (Luke 12:54, 55); “a reed shaken by the wind…a man dressed in fancy clothes” (Matt. 11:7-8; Luke 7:24-25); “eating and drinking…a glutton and a drunkard…tax collectors and sinners” (Matt. 11:19; Luke 7:34); “you are the salt of the earth…you are the light of the world” (Matt. 5:13, 14); “as it was in the days of Noah…as it was in the days of Lot” (Luke 17:26, 28); and “nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom” (Matt. 24:7; Mark 13:8; Luke 21:10). …
Matt. 13:1-9; Mark 4:1-9; Luke 8:4-8
(Huck, 90; Aland, 122; Crook, 144)For abbreviations and bibliographical references, see “Introduction to ‘The Life of Yeshua: A Suggested Reconstruction.'” Revised: 7-January-2020
וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיֵּאָסְפוּ אֻכְלוּסִים גְּדוֹלִים וַיֵּלְכוּ אֵלָיו וַיִּמְשׁוֹל לָהֶם מָשָׁל לֵאמֹר יָצָא הַזּוֹרֵעַ לִזְרוֹעַ אֶת זַרְעוֹ וּבִזְרִיעָתוֹ זֶה נָפַל עַל הַדֶּרֶךְ וְנִדְרַךְ וְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם אָכְלוּ אוֹתוֹ וְאַחֵר נָפַל עַל הַסֶּלַע וְעָלָה וְיָבֵשׁ מֵאֵין לֵחָה וְאַחֵר נָפַל בֵּין הַחוֹחִים וְעָלָה וְהַחוֹחִים חָנְקוּ אוֹתוֹ וְאַחֵר נָפַל בָּאֲדָמָה הַטּוֹבָה וְעָלָה וְעָשָׂה פְּרִי וּמָצָא מֵאָה שְׁעָרִים מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אָזְנַיִם לִשְׁמוֹעַ יִשְׁמַע
Later that day large crowds of people gathered and came to Yeshua, and he told them this parable: “A sower went out to sow his seed. As he sowed, some fell on a footpath. First it was trampled, then the birds of the sky ate it. Some fell on rock.
Calming of the Storm Perhaps we may illustrate the subject better if we take a particular passage of some length in detail, for example, the incident of the storm on the lake (Mark 4:35-41; Matt. 8:18-27; Luke 8:22-25), which will hardly be claimed as forming part of Q, as this source is usually explained.
Matt. 13:10, 18-23; Mark 4:10, 13-20; Luke 8:9, 11-15
(Huck 91, 93; Aland 123, 124; Crook 145, 146)For abbreviations and bibliographical references, see “Introduction to ‘The Life of Yeshua: A Suggested Reconstruction.'” Revised: 7-January-2020
וַיִּקְרְבוּ תַּלְמִידָיו וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ מַה הוּא הַמָּשָׁל הַזֶּה וַיֹֹּאמֶר לָהֶם זֶה הוּא הַמָּשָׁל הַזֶּרַע זֶה דְּבַר אֱלֹהִים וְהֵם עַל הַדֶּרֶךְ אֵלּוּ הַשּׁוֹמְעִים אֶת הַדָּבָר וְאֵינָם מְקַבְּלִים אוֹתוֹ וּבָא הַשָּׂטָן וְעוֹקֵר אֶת הַדָּבָר מִלִּבָּם וְהֵם עַל הַסֶּלַע אֵלּוּ הַשּׁוֹמְעִים אֶת הַדָּבָר וּמְקַבְּלִים אוֹתוֹ בְּשִׂמְחָה וְעִקָּר אֵין לָהֶם וּבִשְׁעַת נִסָּיוֹן הֵם סָרִים וְהֵם בַּחוֹחִים אֵלּוּ הַשּׁוֹמְעִים אֶת הַדָּבָר וּמְקַבְּלִים אוֹתוֹ וְהִרְהוּרִים וְהוֹן וְתַעֲנוּגֵי הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה הוֹלְכִים וְחוֹנְקִים אוֹתָם וְהֵם בָּאֲדָמָה הַטּוֹבָה אֵלּוּ הַשּׁוֹמְעִים אֶת הַדָּבָר וּמְקַבְּלִים אוֹתוֹ בְּלֵב טוֹב
Yeshua’s disciples approached him and said, “What is the meaning of this parable?”
So Yeshua replied, “The meaning of the parable is this: the seed represents the word of God.
Matt. 10:5b-10; Mark 6:8-9; Luke 9:3; 10:4 (Huck 58, 139; Aland 99, 142, 177; Crook 104-106, 162, 199)For abbreviations and bibliographical references, see “Introduction to ‘The Life of Yeshua: A Suggested Reconstruction.'” Revised: 20-January-2020
אֶל דֶּרֶךְ הַגּוֹיִם אַל תֵּלְכוּ וּלְעִיר הַשֹּׁמְרֹנִים אַל תִּכָּנְסוּ אֶלָּא לְכוּ לַצּאֹן הָאֹבְדוֹת שֶׁלְבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַל תִּשְׂאוּ כְּלוּם לַדֶּרֶךְ לֹא מַקֵּל וְלֹא תַּרְמִיל וְלֹא לֶחֶם וְלֹא כֶּסֶף וְלֹא מִנְעָלִים וְלֹא שְׁנֵי חֲלוּקוֹת וְאִישׁ בַּדֶּרֶךְ אַל תִּשְׁאֲלוּ בִּשְׁלוֹמוֹ
“Don’t go to the Gentiles or the Samaritans. Instead, go to the lost sheep who belong to the people of Israel. Don’t take along gear for your mission, not even a walking stick, or a pack, or food, or money, or shoes, or extra clothes. And don’t greet anyone on the road.
Matt. 19:16-30; Mark 10:17-31; Luke 18:18-30 (Huck 189; Aland 254-255; Crook 294-295)For abbreviations and bibliographical references, see “Introduction to ‘The Life of Yeshua: A Suggested Reconstruction.'” Preliminary research on the Rich Man Declines the Kingdom of Heaven incident was carried out in 1986-1987. Seventeen Jerusalem School seminar sessions were devoted to this pericope: eight seminars were held February-June 1986, and a further nine seminars between November 1986 and May 1987.
Jerusalem School Seminar participants engaged in discussing the Rich Man Declines the Kingdom of Heaven incident.
Matt. 9:37-38; 10:16a; Luke 10:2-3 (Huck 58, 139; Aland 98-99, 177; Crook 102, 197-198)For abbreviations and bibliographical references, see “Introduction to ‘The Life of Yeshua: A Suggested Reconstruction.'”… Such intense editorial activity on the part of the author of Matthew in the Sending discourse calls into question his placement of “The Harvest Is Plentiful” and “A Flock Among Wolves” sayings in Matt. 9 and 10, whereas the placement of these sayings in Luke 10 makes good sense.
Other noun-plus-noun expressions found in the Gospels include: “the furnace of the fire” (Matt 13:50); “a storm of wind” (Luke 8:23); “the kingdom of heaven” (Matt 13:31; 19:14; 19:23); “the poor of spirit” (Matt 5:3); “the clean of heart” (Matt 5:8); “the grass of the field” (Matt 6:30); “the lilies of the field” (Matt 6:28); and, “the birds of the sky” (Matt 6:26; 8:20). … Examples of Construct State in the Gospels
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In recording Jesus’ warnings about “false prophets” (probably fake disciples), Matthew contrasts akantha (thorn bushes) with staphyle (grapes), and tribolos (thistle) with sykon (figs) (Matt 7:16); whereas, Luke contrasts akantha (thorn bushes) with sykon (figs), and batos (bramble bush) with staphyle (grapes) (Matt 6:44)…. (Matt 7:16, NKJ)….
For the same two reasons, “thistles” seems out of place in the translation of Matthew 7:16.
Other examples of Hebrew idioms embedded in the Greek text of the Synoptic Gospels are: “bad eye” (Matt. 6:23); “bind” and “loose” (Matt. 16:19); “cast out your name evil” (Luke 6:22); “lay these sayings in your ears” (Luke 9:44); “set his face to go” (Luke 9:51); “give a ring on his hand” (Luke 15:22); and “lifted up his eyes and saw” (Luke 16:23).