Jesus and the Son of Man

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The Hebraic parallelism (man/Son of Man) of the saying helps us to understand that Jesus was not speaking exclusively of himself, but as a representative of humanity (see also Matt. 8:20; 9:6-8).

LOY Excursus: The Kingdom of Heaven in the Life of Yeshua

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Revised: 26-February-2020

A key concept in Jesus’ teaching is the Kingdom of Heaven.For abbreviations and bibliographical references, see “Introduction to ‘The Life of Yeshua: A Suggested Reconstruction.'”The Kingdom of Heaven is the subject of many of Jesus’ parables and is at the heart of his proclamation. The Kingdom of Heaven has, nevertheless, frequently been misunderstood and misconstrued by numerous scholars. The Kingdom of Heaven is neither a place we can visit nor a time for which we must wait.

Cataloging the Gospels’ Hebraisms: Part Two (Luke 9:51-56)

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This variation occurs twice in Mark (Mark 1:9; 4:4); 5 times in Matthew (Matt. 7:28; 11:1; 13:53; 19:1; 26:1); 22 times in Luke (Luke 1:8, 23, 41, 59; 2:1, 6, 15, 46; 7:11; 9:18, 28, 33, 37; 11:1, 14, 27; 17:14; 19:29; 20:1; 24:30; 24:51). 2) subjectless ἐγένετο + time phrase (as here, in Luke 9:51: “when the days were fulfilled”) + kai (and) + finite verb (as here, in Luke 9:51: “he set”). This variation occurs once in Matthew (Matt. 9:10) and 11 times in Luke (Luke 5:1, 12, 17; 8:1, 22; 9:51; 14:1; 17:11-12; 19:15; 24:4; 24:15).

Cataloging the Gospels’ Hebraisms: Part Three (Impersonal “They”)

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This rabbinic saying has a familiar ring to readers of the New Testament because Jesus uttered a similar saying: “With the measure you measure, it will be measured to you” (Matt. 7:2; cf. … In another place, Jesus says: “Lay up treasure in heaven,” also a teaching about giving to the poor (Matt. 6:20)…. (Matt. 7:16; my trans.); Nor do they put new wine into old wineskins…But they put new wine into new wineskins” (Matt. 9:17; NKJV); “If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub….”

Cataloging the Gospels’ Hebraisms: Part Four (Parallelism)

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Here is a sampling of the many doublets and parallelisms we find in the sayings of Jesus: “The wise and understanding” (Luke 10:21); “prophets and apostles” (Luke 11:49); “kings and governors” (Luke 21:12); “two men will be in the field…two women will be grinding with a hand mill” (Matt. 24:40-41); “look at the birds of the heaven…consider the lilies of the field” (Matt. 6:26, 28); “they make their phylacteries wide…and their tassels long” (Matt. 23:5); “when you see a cloud rising in the west…when you see the south wind blowing” (Luke 12:54, 55); “a reed shaken by the wind…a man dressed in fancy clothes” (Matt. 11:7-8Luke 7:24-25); “eating and drinking…a glutton and a drunkard…tax collectors and sinners” (Matt. 11:19Luke 7:34); “you are the salt of the earth…you are the light of the world” (Matt. 5:13, 14); “as it was in the days of Noah…as it was in the days of Lot” (Luke 17:26, 28); and “nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom” (Matt. 24:7; Mark 13:8Luke 21:10). …

  • “Foxes have holes, and the ______ ______ ______ ______ have ______” (Matt. 8:20Luke 9:58)…. A sensitivity to Hebrew parallelism allows scholars to interpret correctly a number of Jesus’ sayings, e.g., “Do not give the holy to the dogs, and do not throw your pearls before the pigs, lest they trample them with their feet, and turning, rend you” (Matt. 7:6).
  • Four Soils Parable

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    Matt. 13:1-9; Mark 4:1-9; Luke 8:4-8
    (Huck, 90; Aland, 122; Crook, 144)For abbreviations and bibliographical references, see “Introduction to ‘The Life of Yeshua: A Suggested Reconstruction.'” Revised: 7-January-2020

    וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיֵּאָסְפוּ אֻכְלוּסִים גְּדוֹלִים וַיֵּלְכוּ אֵלָיו וַיִּמְשׁוֹל לָהֶם מָשָׁל לֵאמֹר יָצָא הַזּוֹרֵעַ לִזְרוֹעַ אֶת זַרְעוֹ וּבִזְרִיעָתוֹ זֶה נָפַל עַל הַדֶּרֶךְ וְנִדְרַךְ וְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם אָכְלוּ אוֹתוֹ וְאַחֵר נָפַל עַל הַסֶּלַע וְעָלָה וְיָבֵשׁ מֵאֵין לֵחָה וְאַחֵר נָפַל בֵּין הַחוֹחִים וְעָלָה וְהַחוֹחִים חָנְקוּ אוֹתוֹ וְאַחֵר נָפַל בָּאֲדָמָה הַטּוֹבָה וְעָלָה וְעָשָׂה פְּרִי וּמָצָא מֵאָה שְׁעָרִים מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אָזְנַיִם לִשְׁמוֹעַ יִשְׁמַע

    Later that day large crowds of people gathered and came to Yeshua, and he told them this parable: “A sower went out to sow his seed. As he sowed, some fell on a footpath. First it was trampled, then the birds of the sky ate it. Some fell on rock.

    Four Soils Interpretation

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    Matt. 13:10, 18-23; Mark 4:10, 13-20; Luke 8:9, 11-15
    (Huck 91, 93; Aland 123, 124; Crook 145, 146)For abbreviations and bibliographical references, see “Introduction to ‘The Life of Yeshua: A Suggested Reconstruction.'” Revised: 7-January-2020

    וַיִּקְרְבוּ תַּלְמִידָיו וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ מַה הוּא הַמָּשָׁל הַזֶּה וַיֹֹּאמֶר לָהֶם זֶה הוּא הַמָּשָׁל הַזֶּרַע זֶה דְּבַר אֱלֹהִים וְהֵם עַל הַדֶּרֶךְ אֵלּוּ הַשּׁוֹמְעִים אֶת הַדָּבָר וְאֵינָם מְקַבְּלִים אוֹתוֹ וּבָא הַשָּׂטָן וְעוֹקֵר אֶת הַדָּבָר מִלִּבָּם וְהֵם עַל הַסֶּלַע אֵלּוּ הַשּׁוֹמְעִים אֶת הַדָּבָר וּמְקַבְּלִים אוֹתוֹ בְּשִׂמְחָה וְעִקָּר אֵין לָהֶם וּבִשְׁעַת נִסָּיוֹן הֵם סָרִים וְהֵם בַּחוֹחִים אֵלּוּ הַשּׁוֹמְעִים אֶת הַדָּבָר וּמְקַבְּלִים אוֹתוֹ וְהִרְהוּרִים וְהוֹן וְתַעֲנוּגֵי הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה הוֹלְכִים וְחוֹנְקִים אוֹתָם וְהֵם בָּאֲדָמָה הַטּוֹבָה אֵלּוּ הַשּׁוֹמְעִים אֶת הַדָּבָר וּמְקַבְּלִים אוֹתוֹ בְּלֵב טוֹב

    Yeshua’s disciples approached him and said, “What is the meaning of this parable?”

    So Yeshua replied, “The meaning of the parable is this: the seed represents the word of God.

    Sending the Twelve: Conduct on the Road

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    Matt. 10:5b-10; Mark 6:8-9; Luke 9:3; 10:4 (Huck 58, 139; Aland 99, 142, 177; Crook 104-106, 162, 199)For abbreviations and bibliographical references, see “Introduction to ‘The Life of Yeshua: A Suggested Reconstruction.'” Revised: 20-January-2020

    אֶל דֶּרֶךְ הַגּוֹיִם אַל תֵּלְכוּ וּלְעִיר הַשֹּׁמְרֹנִים אַל תִּכָּנְסוּ אֶלָּא לְכוּ לַצּאֹן הָאֹבְדוֹת שֶׁלְבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַל תִּשְׂאוּ כְּלוּם לַדֶּרֶךְ לֹא מַקֵּל וְלֹא תַּרְמִיל וְלֹא לֶחֶם וְלֹא כֶּסֶף וְלֹא מִנְעָלִים וְלֹא שְׁנֵי חֲלוּקוֹת וְאִישׁ בַּדֶּרֶךְ אַל תִּשְׁאֲלוּ בִּשְׁלוֹמוֹ

    “Don’t go to the Gentiles or the Samaritans. Instead, go to the lost sheep who belong to the people of Israel. Don’t take along gear for your mission, not even a walking stick, or a pack, or food, or money, or shoes, or extra clothes. And don’t greet anyone on the road.

    Rich Man Declines the Kingdom of Heaven

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    Matt. 19:16-30; Mark 10:17-31; Luke 18:18-30 (Huck 189; Aland 254-255; Crook 294-295)For abbreviations and bibliographical references, see “Introduction to ‘The Life of Yeshua: A Suggested Reconstruction.'” Preliminary research on the Rich Man Declines the Kingdom of Heaven incident was carried out in 1986-1987. Seventeen Jerusalem School seminar sessions were devoted to this pericope: eight seminars were held February-June 1986, and a further nine seminars between November 1986 and May 1987.


    Jerusalem School Seminar participants engaged in discussing the Rich Man Declines the Kingdom of Heaven incident.

    Sending the Twelve: “The Harvest Is Plentiful” and “A Flock Among Wolves”

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    Matt. 9:37-38; 10:16a; Luke 10:2-3 (Huck 58, 139; Aland 98-99, 177; Crook 102, 197-198)For abbreviations and bibliographical references, see “Introduction to ‘The Life of Yeshua: A Suggested Reconstruction.'”… Such intense editorial activity on the part of the author of Matthew in the Sending discourse calls into question his placement of “The Harvest Is Plentiful” and “A Flock Among Wolves” sayings in Matt. 9 and 10, whereas the placement of these sayings in Luke 10 makes good sense.

    Noun Chains in the Gospels

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    Other noun-plus-noun expressions found in the Gospels include: “the furnace of the fire” (Matt 13:50); “a storm of wind” (Luke 8:23); “the kingdom of heaven” (Matt 13:31; 19:14; 19:23); “the poor of spirit” (Matt 5:3); “the clean of heart” (Matt 5:8); “the grass of the field” (Matt 6:30); “the lilies of the field” (Matt 6:28); and, “the birds of the sky” (Matt 6:26; 8:20). … Examples of Construct State in the Gospels

    Reference Greek Hebrew Reconstruction Literal Translation of the Greek KJV NIV Rendering Based on a Hebrew Understanding Mt. 10:5 ὁδὸν ἐθνῶν (hodon ethnon) דֶּרֶךְ הַגּוֹיִם (derech hagoyim) way of Gentiles the way of the Gentiles the Gentiles Gentile roads Mt. 10:5 πόλιν Σαμαριτῶν (polin Samariton) עִיר הַשֹּׁמְרוֹנִים (ir hashomronim) city of Samaritans any city of the Samaritans any town of the Samaritans Samaritan villages Mt. 13:50 τὴν κάμινον τοῦ πυρός (ten kaminon tou pyros) תַּנּוּר הָאֵשׁ (tanur ha-esh) the furnace of the fire the furnace of fire the fiery furnace a fiery furnace Lk. 8:23 λαῖλαψ ἀνέμου (lailaps anemou) רוּחַ סְעָרָה (ruakh se’arah) a storm of wind a storm of wind a squall windstorm, storm Mt. 13:31;
    19:14;
    19:23 ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν (he basileia ton ouranon) מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִם (malchut shamayim) the kingdom of the heavens the kingdom of heaven the kingdom of heaven God’s Rule Mt. 5:3 οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι (hoi ptochoi to pneumati) עֲנִיֵּי רוּחַ (aniye ruakh) the poor in the spirit the poor in spirit the poor in spirit the spiritually down-and-out, the spiritually bankrupt Mt. 5:8 οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ (hoi katharoi te kardia) בָּרֵי לֵבָב (bare levav) the clean in the heart the pure in heart the pure in heart the utterly sincere (in their desire for God) Mt. 6:30 τὸν χόρτον τοῦ ἀγροῦ (ton chorton tou agrou) צִיץ הַשָּׂדֶה (tsits hasadeh), or עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה (esev hasadeh) the grass of the field the grass of the field the grass of the field wild grass Mt. 6:28 τὰ κρίνα τοῦ ἀγροῦ (ta krina tou agrou) שׁוֹשַׁנֵּי הַשָּׂדֶה (shoshane hasadeh) the lilies of the field the lilies of the field the lilies of the field wild flowers Mt. 6:26;
    8:20 τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (ta peteina tou ouranou) עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם (of hashamayim), or צִפֹּר שָּׁמַיִם (tsipor shamayim) the birds of the heaven the fowls of the air; the birds of the air (8:20) the birds of the air; birds of the air (8:20)

    Beating the (Thorny) Bushes

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    In recording Jesus’ warnings about “false prophets” (probably fake disciples), Matthew contrasts akantha (thorn bushes) with staphyle (grapes), and tribolos (thistle) with sykon (figs) (Matt 7:16); whereas, Luke contrasts akantha (thorn bushes) with sykon (figs), and batos (bramble bush) with staphyle (grapes) (Matt 6:44)…. (Matt 7:16, NKJ)….

    For the same two reasons, “thistles” seems out of place in the translation of Matthew 7:16.

    Unlocking the Synoptic Problem: Four Keys for Better Understanding Jesus

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    Other examples of Hebrew idioms embedded in the Greek text of the Synoptic Gospels are: “bad eye” (Matt. 6:23); “bind” and “loose” (Matt. 16:19); “cast out your name evil” (Luke 6:22); “lay these sayings in your ears” (Luke 9:44); “set his face to go” (Luke 9:51); “give a ring on his hand” (Luke 15:22); and “lifted up his eyes and saw” (Luke 16:23).

    Jesus’ Attitude to Poverty

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    Matt 8:20Luke 9:58.