The Wealth of Herod the Great

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King Herod built on a scale that surpassed even the rulers of the Roman empire. Magen Broshi explains how this administrative genius was able to fund monumental building projects both within and without his kingdom.

And as he came out of the Temple, one of his disciples said to him, “Look, Teacher, what magnificent stones and what magnificent buildings!” (Mark 13:1)

Herod the Great’s gigantic building projects, both public and private, required enormous financial resources. His riches were so vast that he could spend an incredible fortune not only on buildings in his own domain, but also on showy structures abroad.

David's Tower near Jaffa Gate is built on the base of one of the three towers that guarded Herod's palace in Jerusalem. View from inside the citadel. (Photo courtesy of Joshua N. Tilton.)

David’s Tower near Jaffa Gate is built on the base of one of the three towers that guarded Herod’s palace in Jerusalem. View from inside the citadel. (Photo courtesy of Joshua N. Tilton.)

We know of at least twenty of his projects in the land of Israel, the size of which set world records at the time. Among them were the Temple complex, built on a vast artificial esplanade or platform that was the largest of its kind in antiquity;[1] the Royal Portico of the Temple, the longest building then in existence;[2] Herodium, then the largest palace in the world (only Nero built a larger one in Rome, some sixty years after Herod’s death);[3] the harbor of Caesarea, the most technologically advanced harbor in antiquity;[4] the citadels and palace in Jerusalem; the citadel and palaces at Masada; the palace complex at Jericho; the cities of Samaria, Caesarea, Gaba-Hippeon and Antipatris; and the irrigation systems in the Jordan Valley. Josephus tells of dozens of cities abroad that enjoyed Herod’s munificence for luxury buildings and contributions for building a fleet.[5]

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  • [1] Cf. J. Simons, Jerusalem in the Old Testament (Leiden, 1952), 346ff.
  • [2] The length of the portico was 270 meters. Cf. R. Grafman, “Herod’s Foot and Robinson’s Arch,” Israel Exploration Journal 20 (1970): 60-66; B. Mazar, “The Royal Stoa in the Southern Part of the Temple Mount,” in Recent Archaeology in the Land of Israel, ed. H. Shanks and B. Mazar (Washington, D.C. and Jerusalem, 1985), 141-147.
  • [3] E. Netzer, “Greater Herodium,” Qedem 13 (1981): 110.
  • [4] A. Raban and R. L. Hohlfelder, “The Ancient Harbors of Caesarea Maritima,” Archaeology 34.2 (1981): 56-60.
  • [5] On Herod’s gifts to cities abroad, cf. War 1:422-425; Antiquities 16:146-149.

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  • Magen Broshi

    Magen Broshi

    Magen Broshi is a world-renowned Israeli archeologist, author, historian and lecturer. From 1964 to 1994, he was the curator of the Shrine of the Book, the wing of the Israel Museum where most of the intact Dead Sea Scrolls are housed. He was appointed to…
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