There is a vast difference between the approach of the Essenes toward unbelievers, and that of Jesus and his disciples. The Essenes practiced extreme separatism, particularly forbidding economic relations with outsiders. Whoever wanted to follow Jesus, however, had to live in brotherly love with the outside world and not withdraw from society.
The Dead Sea Scrolls have demonstrated that the Essenes’ favorite name for themselves was “the sons of light.” In the synoptic gospels that term appears only in Luke 16:8, and a close examination of the text indicates that Jesus did not use “sons of light” to refer to his own followers, but rather to refer to the Essenes themselves.
I believe that Jesus’ Parable of the Unjust Steward (Luke 16:1-9) can best be understood as an attempt to teach his disciples not to behave like the Essenes. He further emphasized his warning not to emulate the Essenic separatism in his application of the parable as recounted in Luke 16:10-12.
A photograph of the War Scroll photographed by Eric Matson of the Matson photo service. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.